Many thanks to those named below for providing additional loco specs. I have added a little information where possible and included site addresses where there may be photos and/or more data.
Mark advises that the following sites should be consulted for more info and pictures: -
UP_3900 Union Pacific Challenger 4-6-6-4
Articulated loco. Fast freight and some passenger duties. Max speed
First introduced in 1936 but built with several variations until 1944.
UP_4000 Union Pacific Big Boy 4-8-8-4
25 built in two batches, one in 1941 and another in 1944
Last in service 1962. 8 preserved. Freight engine but designed for 80 mph, although the maximum service speed was probably a lot less.
Up_9000 Union Pacific 4-12-2
Three cylinder freight loco. Longest fixed wheelbase in the US.
Limited to 45 mph. Introduced in 1926.
SOO line 4-6-2 built 1923 by Alco. Max speed 80 mph.
Two locos preserved, one in working order, in Wisconsin.
specs are at:
and the builders prints are at:
The data is taken from "The great book of trains" by
Hollingsworth and Cook, but I could not find values for boiler
length/diameter, or clearance volume. I guessed those values looking
at similar locos. Advice on accuracy would be appreciated.
New South Wales Government Railways NSWGR class
C38 4-6-2. Thirty were built between 1943 and 1949. Simple and powerful,
with many labour saving features, "they could take the Melbourne Express
loaded to 450 tons unassisted up hte 1:75 inclines of the main line to
Albury." Several have been preserved.
Peter Cokley has since supplied more accurate details for the boiler dimensions, and they have been applied.
South Australian Government Railways SAR class 520 4-8-4
12 class 520s were built between 1943 and 1947. Built to run over
lightly constructed routes they were very successful. Two are
preserved No.520 Sir Malcolm Barclay-Harvey and 523 Essington
South Australian Government Railways SAR class 500 4-8-4
Built in 1928 by Armstrong Whitworth in England, they could
take 450 tons of "Overland Express between Adelaide and
Melbourne. The 1:45 of the Mount Lofty incline could be negotiated
at 15 mph with 550 tons" The locos were fitted with a booster
that increased their tractive effort by 8000lb on the hills. No 504
is preserved. (Note the sim does not include the booster!)
"Attached is a NSW 36 class 4-6-0. I did it using the correct data,
boiler tube plate lengths. I found I had it in an old book here. The only
guess was the cylinder clearance volume %, I just used the 38 class data for that.
It is the rebuilt Belpaire boiler version done from 1953-57. The only
main difference to the earlier boiler is 180 lb instead of the newer 200 lb.
Thus the file is called NSW36B.loc where the "B" is Belpaire."
Peter has also provided more accurate boiler dimensions for the 38 class
PB 15 Queensland Government Railways[QGR], Australia
The PB15 Class Locomotives were 4-6-0 locomotives originally built from 1899. They were a passenger variation on the 1889 B15 class locomotive. The "P" in the class title denotes the "Passenger" version.
The passenger version was able to make use of the increased speed when the B15's 36 inch wheel diameter was increased to 48 inches to form the PB15. Over 230 engines were built between 1899 and 1926. Only a few were still in service at the end of steam in 1969.
Five have survived to 1999. Of these only #444 in for static display only. #454 sometimes hauls Tourist traffic near Geelong, Victoria while #448 and #738 haul similar services 1200 miles north in their native Queensland. #732 is retained by the QGR for Heritage use.
The standard heavy mainline steam locomotive axleload in Queensland was 12 tons. The 8 ton axle load of the PB15 enabled their use on pioneer style branch lines to haul both passenger and Goods services. It was for this reason that the PB15 was used on the South Brisbane / Beenleigh Line. The low strength bridge over the Logan River would not have withstood the weight of heavier mainline locomotives.
Sources; Some locomotive measurements from QGR locomotive diagrams. Other locomotive material from "Queensland Railways 1865 / 1965", published by Australian Railway Historical Society [QLD Division] c1965.
Southern Pacific GS-4 4-8-4 Daylight Express
I couldn't resist this loco after seeing a photo of one crossing the Sacremento River at Martinez - Just need some kind person to write the Los Angeles to San Francisco Route!
The lineage of these machines goes back to 1930 with 14 GS-1 locos built
by Baldwins, but the GS-4 machines were introduced in 1941. Oil fired and
with a boiler pressed to 300 psi and a massive 2086 ft2 superheater, just
about the ultimate 2 cylinder simple locomotive.
This locomotive has been added to accompany the 1897 working timetable of the Waverley line supplied by Ian Graham. The loco was designed by Dougal Drummond before he joined the deadly rivals of the NBR, the Caledonian Railway. He subsequently specified very similar engines for that line. The NBR locos were all built by Neilsons. Jim Mcdonnell has updated the loco file after carrying out further research.
GW_BEAR GWR The unique, and not conspicuously successful, GWR pacific.
NE_PAC Vincent Raven's NER answer to the Gresley's GNR A1 pacific, not much more successful than Great Bear!
SR_WC_RB Rebuilt SR West Country, called detuned Bullieds by some, but a fine loco.
SR_MN_Rb The rebuilt Merchant Navy - super locomotive!
LM_CORN The streamlined LMS Coronation pacific
LNE_V1 Gresleys 2-6-2 passenger tank engine, lovely machine.
LNE_J38 the smaller wheeled version of the J39 0-6-0, saw service
Ex NER Z class Atlantic fitted with booster engine to become LNER class C9. The booster is a 2 cylinder engine, 10.5" bore by 14" stroke. Assume additional adhesive mass 18 ton.
The famous "Red Devil", a modified SAR 25NC loco reclassified SAR 26.
HR-Duke.loc: A 4-4-0 designed by David Jones in 1874.
HrSkyeBg.loc. The well known Skye Bogie 4-4-0 desiged by David Jones 1985.
HR_loch,loc: 4-4-0 designed by David Jones in 1896
HrCastle.loc A 4-6-0 introduced in 1901 and designed by Peter Drummond
HrCstle2.loc which is the same loco but with a 4000 gallon tender
Cr_Cls66.loc: 4-4-0, designed by Dugald Drummond and introduced 1884
Cr-Dun1.loc: 4-4-0 designed by J.F. McIntosh and introduced in 1895
Cr-Dun4.loc: 4-4-0. Designed by J.F. McIntosh 1904.
Cr-Cls49.loc: 4-6-0 designed by J.F. McIntosh and built in 1903.
See McDonell.txt for more details
New South Wales Government Railways [NSWGR] AD60 class Beyer Garratt.
Built by Beyer Peacock at Gorton, Manchester, UK from 1952, these 4-8-4+4-8-4 locomotives were used for heavy haulage.
Many were used on Hunter Valley coal trains from the Muswellbrook region to the international shipping coal loader at Port Waratah, Newcastle. Regular use of the Garratts was made hauling coal from Glenlee, near Campbelltown, to the port in Sydney.
Other freight destinations included Junee in the south as well as Parkes and Dubbo in the west. A tight tunnel at Coal Cliff prevented their use on the Wollongong line. A similar tunnel problem prevented their use on the North Coast line.
The original design was for a light branch line locomotive of 16 ton axle load. This was later altered to produce an 18 ton axle load. The heavier units also had their cylinders bored out from 19 1/2 inch to 19 7/8 inch. This increased the original Tractive Effort of 59560 lbs to 63000 lbs. Mechanical stokers were fitted to both types.
The simulator model is of the later heavier type.
The class remained in service until 1973. Several have been preserved, although none are in working order in 1999.
Online pictures are available at John Hurst's site;
New south Wales Government Railways [NSWGR] D53 class 2-8-0 freight locomotive.
Built as saturated locomotives from 1912, superheating was later added. The D53 class, along with the earlier D50 and later D55 classes, were termed "Standard Goods" locomotives. Of similar size and power, these three manually stoked classes hauled freight trains over most of the NSWGR network.
Many lasted into the early 1970's as either yard shunters or hauling Newcastle coal trains. Several have been preserved.
Online pictures are available at John Hurst's site;
Thanks to Phillip Robinson for the loco measurements.
New South Wales Government Railways [NSWGR] D57 class 4-8-2 heavy freight steam locomotive.
Built in 1929 in Sydney, NSW, by the Clyde Engineering Co and designed by the NSWGR, this heavy 227 ton mechanically stoked monster was built to haul freight over the many long 1:40 grades that abound on the NSWGR mainlines. Its usual routes were from Sydney to [a] Lithgow in the west [b] Junee on the south and [c] Thirroul, near Wollongong, on the NSW south coast. Lithgow trips involved an assistant locomotive from Valley Heights to Katoomba for westboung loads over the 1:33 grades and Lithgow to Zig Zag for eastbound loads over the 1:42 grades.
An unusual feature, for Australian locomotives, was a third cylinder. Other Australian three cylinder locomotives include the later NSWGR D58 4-8-2 and the Victorian S class 4-6-2 express passenger locomotive and H class 4-8-4 heavy freight locomotive.
Diesel electric, as well as electric locomotives, started to appear on the NSWGR in the 1950's. This invasion resulted in the D57 class being withdrawn. The sole surviver, 5711, resides at the NSW Rail Transport Museum.
Thanks to Phillip Robinson for the loco measurements.
Richard worked as a fireman, based at Cricklewood shed. He remembers the Ivatt as having a particularly powerful injector, something that his model reflects.
Ivatt 4MT 2-6-0, LM_4MT.LOC
Midland 3F 0-6-0, LM_3F.LOC
Midland 2P 4-4-0, LM_2P.LOC
HR_CLAN.LOC - This was the last loco built for the Highland Railway and there were eight of them all named after Scottish clans. Designed by Christopher Cummings they were built in 1920/21 and the last was scrapped with a BR number in 1952. In the 1930s they worked from Glasgow to Oban and they had great slogging capacity on the heavy grades. In 1921?, one was experimentally converted to oil burning for a short period. They were a modern looking 4-6-0 engine with a 6ft wheel.
HR_RIVER.LOC - A 4-6-0 Designed by Frederick Smith in 1915 for the HR,
they turned out to be overweight and were banned by the civil engineer
after the first one was delivered to Perth. All 6 were sold to the Caledonian
railway for a profit and they worked mainly fast goods after an early spell
on expresses. They returned to the Highland section of the LMS in the late
20s after some bridge strengthening work had been carried out. Two only,
survived World War 2 and they were used on troop trains in tandem between
Stranraer and Ayr.
HR_Cl_103.LOC - No need to say much about the Jones Goods. They were the first 4-6-0 in Britain and were used on excursion trains as well as goods. Two of them were dual fitted with Westinghouse brakes for through trains including no 116 which was my grandfather's loco in the late 20s when he was working from Perth shed. No. 103 is preserved in Glasgow museum. Perhaps one day it will come back and it was certainly in working order when it went in 1965.
The South African GL 4-8-2+2-8-4 which were built in the late 20's early 30's and were the largest Garratts in South Africa. They would haul massive trains. However they were frequently displaced by the ever spreading electrification and would take over trains from the electric units which would be multipled together in up to eight locomotive units per large freight. These trains were then handled single handedly by the GLs from the interchange points. All this in mountainous country on the 3 foot six. Two survive. One has returned to its native Manchester and is to be seen in the Museum of Science and Industry the other is operational based at Bloomfontain Dept in Natal. She has just had a new Mechanical stoker built for her but it is doubtful as to how often she will be used if at all, though she was present at the opening of the New George Steam museum last year. (See photograph in Steam Railway Magazine from that time.)
The other locomotive is one of the famous East African Metre gauge class 59 4-8-2+2-8-4s. These were the most powerful Garratts ever built, except for a one off in Russia which only lasted a short time. The 59s were fitter in the later part of their careers with the "flat funnel" Giesel Ejector system. They were also kept in immaculate red and yellow livery. The East African Railways were renowned for the seep continuos gradients and heavy trains. The EAR finished with steam in the early 1980s with the last form of that power to be used being these locos which since the demise of the Large American Locomotives were for about twenty years the world most powerful form of traction. I under stand that Two are still in existence, I think at Nairobi, but I can not comment on what condition they are in. An interesting feature of the 59s was that they were all named after local Mountains. They were all Oil fired and I have used at the equivalent coal capacity next to early EAR Garratts which burned coal. Both the specifications for these locomotives came from the excellent book "Garratt Locomotives of the World" by the recently departed "Dusty" Durrant. Also in this book is an interesting topological diagram of the EAR and it is thoroughly worth a read. Unfortunately however I think it is currently out of print.
Durango and Silverton K36 2-8-2. This type of locomotive has only operated on the D&S since 1982. RG_K36.LOC [I assume that the RG refers to Rio Grande - BA]
Also attached are three other US locomotives. All of which have had slightly toned down stat's due to the inability of the loco definition program to accept the actual figures. Neither of the modifications have made any difference to the tractive effort but they may be uncharacteristically light on their feet. [If somebody can supply the actual figures I will modify the files - BA]
Of these the SP_AC12 is the last development of the Southern Pacific Cab Forward 4-8-8-2s which complement the GS4s on the SP Coast line. They were oil fired, so a guess has been made at their coal capacity. The reason for the cab in front was the Donner Pass line out of Roseville, which is now operated by UP and contains many tunnels. I will attempt to create this route at a later date when I have more info. The last built is preserved in the CSRM in Sacramento.
The Chesapeake and Ohio (C&O) H-8 is even larger than the UP Big Boy in terms of power output. These were the famous "Alleghenys" (after the mountains) 2-6-6-6 locomotives and were the largest built by Lima in the late 1940s. They had enormous fireboxes with siphons and cross fire jets for "cleaning" the exhaust. They only lasted a short while and were used on the C&O subsidiary the Virginian as well. One is preserved in a Michigan Museum. CO_H-8.LOC
The Norfolk & Western J class were the most powerful 4-8-4s ever built in the US. They were recorded frequently over the ton. They had all the mod cons of their time and were the last passenger steam locomotives to be built in the US, the last not appearing until 1951. The famous 611 is one of these superb locos and since being retired from mainline excursions in 1994 is displayed in the Roanoke Transportation museum. NW_J.LOC
The final new locomotive is the South African class 25 4-8-4 which was the bases for the class 26 [Red Devil]. The two spec's in fact are almost identical. The main differences being with the valve and firebox design. SAR_25.LOC
Ffestiniog - the ubiquitous Linda 0-4-0ST built in 1863 by Hunslets and bought from Penrhyn quarries in 1963, and rebuilt as a 2-4-0 STT. (LINDA.LOC)
Prince of is the Ffestiniog's oldest working locomotive and is of the 0-4-0STT wheel arrangement. (PRINCE.LOC)
Welsh Highland Railway - The largest narrow gauge loco bought for use on the Welsh Highland Railway is an ex SAR NGG16 2 foot Garratt 2-6-2+2-6-2. This was a member of a class of Beyer Garratt locomotives supplied to South African Railways in 1958. No. 143 was the last Garratt to be built by the Manchester firm. Of course this locomotive could be used in conjunction with a South African route as well, unfortunately details of the SA NG lines are hard to come by, otherwise I would have held out longer and included it here. (NGG16.LOC)
PBR - The Australian Puffing Billy Railway is the monopoly of one standard
type of locomotive, the NA 2-6-2Ts, which were designed by Baldwin. There
are still SIX of these superb locomotives surviving, with four currently
operating. The line also has a Garratt that was employed on one of the
other Victorian NG lines and it is in the process of a long term rebuild.
They also have stored an NG G16 from South Africa which they eventually
intend to re-gauge to 2'6". (PBR_NA.LOC)
On the South African front I have added three interesting designs which have all at one time been involved on the Kimberley Route. 15F 4-8-2s were very popular and powerful mixed traffic locomotives which could often be seen hauling the famous Blue Train. (SAR_15F.LOC)
Also used on this train (though in less rough areas) were the 16E 4-6-2s. Five of these Pacifics were built in the 1930s by Henschels of Cassel. They had the largest drivers on any narrow gauge design and were very fast. They were all interestingly fitted with RC poppet valve gear which is very different from the Capprotti (used on some 5MTs and "Duke of Gloucester") and unlike that gear was NOT infinitely variable. The starting cut off was about 65% and the driver could then literally notch up about four positions ranging from 65% to about 20%. O.S. Nock and John Bellwood have some interesting things to say about this in their books, British Steam Locomotives (1910+) and Gresley and Stanier. (SAR_16E.LOC)
The final SAR locomotive here is the class 21 2-10-4. This was a one off locomotive built by North British and was launched into direct competition with the Garratts as a comparison. The outcome of this testing is obvious but it is an interesting locomotive to simulate nevertheless. All three of these classes had identical boilers to a standard design, however the 16Es had a much larger firebox area. The 15F and 21 were mechanically stoked but the 16E (with its larger box) was not! The 15Fs were almost identical to the preceding 15Es which had poppet valves and hand fired boilers. (SAR_21.LOC)
I have also added a Nickel Plate Berkshire (2-8-4) which was the original superpower locomotive type built by Lima. Many of these locomotives are preserved and number 765 is currently having an overhaul partially funded by a national grant. (NKP_S3.LOC)
Joining the large articulateds is the Northern Pacific Z-5 type 2-8-8-4. These were built by Baldwin in 1930, were more powerful that the Big Boys, and were fitted with large 50MPH boosters! Photographs of these locomotives are rare but the type became known as the "Yellowstones" as part of their work included running though part of this National Park. (NP_Z5.LOC)
In the latter part of the 19th Century the railway companies on the East and West sides of Britain became involved in a series of races between London and Aberdeen. The East coast lines involved were the GNR (London to York), the NER (York to Edinburgh) and the NBR (Edinburgh to Aberdeen). The West coast competitors were the LNWR (London to Carlisle) and the CR (Carlisle to Aberdeen). Fortunately there were no accidents, but incredible risks were taken by both sets of companies. Eventually common sense prevailed and the racing came to an end, but not before the enthusiasts of the time had a great, although at times frightening, time. As an LNER buff, I regret to have to inform you that the other side won, with some almost unbelievable performances from their small locomotives, and better organisation at the change over points. However, the NER made one of the best runs in the races, between Newcastle and Edinburgh.
The locomotive involved was M1 class 4-4-0 No. 1620, whose stablemate, No. 1621, also took part in the race and is now safely ensconced in the National Railway Museum at York. These locomotives, built in 1893, were described at the time as "Railcrushers" as they were so much larger than what had gone before.
No.1620 made her dramatic run in the early morning of August 22nd 1895, covering the 124.4 miles from Newcastle to Edinburgh in 113 minutes, at an average speed of 66 mph. In order to achieve this, speeds in excess of 80 mph were probably required, while the various speed restrictions along the route, while not completely ignored, were not adhered to. The tare weight of the train was 101 tons, comprising six vehicles, an estimated gross weight of 105 tons.
The passing times are listed below: -
Alnmouth Junction 33:30
Drem Junction 98:00
Edinburgh Waverley 113:00
The sectional timings indicate that the average speed between Berwick and Burnmouth (5.6 miles)was 48 mph, so speed must have been reduced significantly through the station at Berwick where there was a crowd of spectators (There was a 5mph restriction at the time - but "when the...(crowd)..saw the train coming...they scattered for their lives." The highest average recorded was 80 mph along the seven mile stretch between Belford and Beal. The crew that night were driver Bob Nicholson and fireman Tom Blades, both of Gateshead shed.
According to Tuplin (North Eastern Steam), no steam locomotive has ever made the run in faster time, a fact disputed by Harry Friend (Track Record) who claims to have made it in 105 minutes firing a Peppercorn A1 and pulling 400 tons (max 90 mph at Smeafield), while he also relates a second hand story of a V2 with "only 8 on" doing it in 100 minutes.
If you want to simulate the run of 1620 I would suggest that the minimum cut-off be set to 25%, and that speed be held below 85 mph, as locos of that period had short travel valves and could not clear the steam as effectively as a more modern machine. I would also suggest a train weight of 110 tons, as the carriages of the period were probably not as free running as those used later, on which the simulator's calculations are based.
If you would like to read more about the "Railway Race to the North" try O.S. Nock's book of the same title, published by Ian Allan in the late 1950s - my copy cost 6/- (30p).
I have three new locomotives to add. The first is appropriate for the SP route. SP_P-8 pacifics were built by Baldwin in the 1920s. They were extremely popular and quite racy. They are very similar in output to a large British pacific but have the advantage of the larger boiler and Mechanical Stoker. (They are in reality oil burners however.) These locomotives were used on lighter trains by the SP, first on the route from Reno to Salt Lake City and they ended their working lives on the San Francisco Commuter trains. I know of three survivors. 2472 was restored to the main line out of San Francisco in 1991 but hasn't run for a few years whilst waiting funds for repair work. 2467 returned to a great reception at Sacramento Railfair99 last June, travelling there under her own power from Oakland where she was restored by the pacific locomotive association. 2479 is under restoration near San Jose.
Also on the US theme is the N&W_A. These were enormous 2-6-6-4s built by the road from the mid 1930s. They hauled most types of trains including express passenger but were designed for heavy coal drags. I was told they were rated at about 6000 horse power. The one survivor, 1218, was built in 1943 and was restored to operation by NS in 1987 as a contrast to the J class 4-8-4 611. The loco has not operated since 1992 and was half way though a thorough overhaul when the steam program was stopped in 94. She is at present stored in a freight shed at Roanoke, partially dismantled. Hopefully NS will soon see sense and let her out again or a group will put her a public display at the nearby museum with 611.
Finally I add the NG_15 class 2-8-2s built for the 2 foot gauge lines in Northern Africa. This scheme fell through and they were delivered to the South African lines instead. Many more were built and many currently still held in existence, though most no longer operate. Some were regularly used on the famous Apple Express out of Port Elizabeth. They were originally built by European builders including Henchell and Franco-Belge. Several have found there way to the UK recently including two being held in a restoration cue for the New Welsh Highland and one now named Beddgelert being restored at Porthmadog by the WHR 1964 Co. See various web sites.
I hope these are enjoyed,
Highland Railway Yankee Tank 4-4-0T.
This was the engine that the Highland Railway sent, in the beginning, to work the Invergarry/Fort Augustus branch.
The first 2 locos of this class of 5 had been built by Dubs in 1891
for the Uruguay Great Eastern Railway but they never accepted delivery
and the Highland took
them on trial. They liked them and ordered 3 more to a slightly modified and more powerful design and no. 52 of this later batch is the one sent to Fort Augustus. The
tank capacity was 900 gallons although the minimum possible on the loco build program is 1000 gallons.
As they had been ordered for South America they were known as “Yankee
Tanks.” I suppose that if you lived in Scotland in the 19th century the
North and South America was not something you knew or cared about.
No. 52 was based at Fort Augustus shed and covering 4 return trips on
6 days per week would have amassed around 1200 miles per week. As far as
I know it was
never relieved for several years and any more information about this would be gladly received.
The last one was scrapped in 1934 and they were used on many of the Highland Railway branches.
It is available on the simulator as HR_YTANK.
North British Railway class R 4-4-0 Tank (LNER class D51)
Numbers 19 and 74 of this class were sent to work the line when the North British took over in 1907. They were built in 1882 and were designed by Dugald Drummond. They had a tank capacity of 655 gallons.
In the summer workings they took 5 coaches and a through coach from Glasgow.
They would not have amassed as many miles as the Highland engine since there were only 2 trains in the winter and 3 in the summer. Perhaps they double headed heavier trains.
This engine is available on the simulator as LNER_D51. I had no data on adhesive weight, boiler diameter and tube length. These are all assumed and corrections are welcomed.
The classic Hiawatha express was operated by this Railroad between Chicago and the Twin Cities (St Paul & Minneapolis). The 412 mile route was hotly contested for express passenger traffic with the C&NW and CB&Q. These trains laid claim to the fastest passenger service and though never authenticated, probably would have outpaced the Mallard record. Both classes were streamlined. The service finally succumbed to diesel in 1946.
Class A 4-4-2
The first loco used was an "Atlantic" configuration. Four were built between 1935 and 1937. Oil burning, they were timetabled to complete the journey in 6 1/2 hours with six cars. This was shortly revised to 6 1/4 hours with nine cars (around 400 tons) including five stops and 15 sub 50 mph speed limits.
Class F7 4-6-4
Ordered in 1938 these coal burners were a little more general purpose, they could haul 12 cars and were capable of 120 mph and greater. There are unauthenticated reports of speeds of 125 mph. in 1940 the record start to stop run was recorded, averaging 81 1/4 mph over 78 1/2 miles.
(After Brian Hollingsworth, "North American Locomotives")
SA class 4-4-0, SN and SR class 4-6-0's, SE3 class 2-8-0 - standard locomotives of the late 19th century, all saturated steam with slide valves.
F2 class 4-4-4 - built in 1936 for high-speed lightweight trains, holder of the Canadian steam speed record (see commentary on CP_WINCH.RUT)
G3 class 4-6-2, H1 class 4-6-4, K1 class 4-8-4 - standard heavy passenger power from the 1920's on. Some of the H1's and both K1's had boosters giving an additional 12 000 lbs tractive effort. Speed limit 90 mph, often liberally exceeded by the H1's, early G3's limited to 75.
P2 class 2-8-2, S2 class 2-10-2, T1 class 2-10-4 - standard heavy freight power. The S2's and T1's were used almost exclusively in the Rocky and Selkirk mountains. Speed limits: early P2 and T1 classes 50 mph, later ones 65 mph, S2 30 mph. All T1's had boosters giving an additional 12 000 lbs tractive effort. The Franklin trailing truck booster used 2- 10"x12" cylinders for a steam pressure of 200#. Pro-rating this for the booster gear ratio (2:1), the trailing wheel diameter (45") and the higher steam pressure gives an equivalent booster cylinder size of 14"x12" for use in the simulator. The weight on the booster axle is about 22 long tons.
Please refer to the file argentin.txt for comprehensive notes, in both Spanish and English, on the routes and locos provided by Carlos.
To join the Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul & Pacific Railroad (CMStP&P)Atlantic and Hudson is an S3 4-8-4. This is the class of locomotive excursion engine 261 belongs to. They are interesting engines built during the war when restrictions on building new designs were in force. The locomotives are virtual copies of engines from the Delaware and Hudson, and Rock Island RRs. The locomotive type was first conceived on the Rock Island as class R67 in 1928, built by ALCO. The S3s were slightly heavier than the other locomotives, however. They also had 250 PSI boiler pressure instead of 300 and larger tenders. This gave a reduced tractive effort than the RI and D&H engines. The D&H engines carried large Elephant Ear smoke deflectors and a recessed headlight in the smokebox door. All types were used on freight as much as passenger workings. A second S3 is preserved by the Illinois Railway Museum. CMSPP_S3.LOC
The second locomotive is the LNER Gresley U1 2-8-0+0-8-2 six cylinder Garratt. This was a unique locomotive built with standardisation in mind, having the same chassis components as the standard 2-8-0s. The locomotive was never considered much of a success, ending its days as one of the Lickey Bankers. It was converted to oil burning as the large grate was too difficult to hand fire. (never fitted with a stoker, though the simulator has modelled one) There is plenty on this locomotive in The Garratt Locomotives of the World, by Mr. Durrant. LNE_U1.LOC
Caledonian Railway 4-2-2 No. 123: (CR_123)
This locomotive was designed by Neilson & Co. modelled on Caledonian practice for the Edinburgh International Exhibition of 1886. The engine was awarded a gold medal. She had a 7 foot wheel and adhesive weight of 16.5 tons.
After the exhibition no. 123 was sent to Dalry Road shed in Edinburgh and worked expresses between Edinburgh and Carlisle (this includes Beattock bank). One of her workings was the 10 a.m. London express.
She was the only Caledonian engine to be used in the 1888 race to Edinburgh. Her fastest time was on 9th August 1888 when, with 4 bogie coaches weighing 80 tons she ran the 100.6 miles from Carlisle to Edinburgh in 102 mins 33 secs non-stop.
By the 1930s she was used on Perth to Dundee local trains and was withdrawn from service in the mid 30s.
Happily she was kept in store and resurrected for special trains in the late 50s and finally she ended in Glasgow museum in 1966 after working many specials including some in Southern England. Lets hope she re-appears on the main line one day.
The Aberdeen to Glasgow route was the Caley main line in Scotland and
123 may have worked that one although I have seen no reports. On
the simulator she can certainly manage 120 tons on the 1960s A4 timings
although the start out of Aberdeen up the 1 in 96 can be a
bit tricky with a single wheel. (the use of sand in station areas
where there were points & locking devices was discouraged by the authorities)
Caledonian Railway 0-6-0 "Jumbo": (CR_0-6-0)
This class was first introduced in 1883 as a goods engine and were designed by Dugald Drummond. Building continued under Drummond's successors and the last was built in 1897.
In all the class numbered more than 200 and the last 83 were fitted with Westinghouse brakes for working passenger trains. This is the version represented on the simulator.
They enjoyed a long life and in BR days could be found in many locations in Scotland. The last one was scrapped around 1962. The Jumbo's bigger brother, the 812 class 0-6-0 has been preserved.
Highland Railway Passenger Tank 0-4-4T: (HR_044T)
This class of 4 was built in 1905/6 and was designed by Peter Drummond. They were the last engines constructed in the Highland Railway's own works at Lochgorm and were built to work the Company's small branches. They had a 54 inch wheel, tractive effort of a mere 9256 lbs and an axle weight of 10.75 tons.
Two survived to be given BR nos. which were 55051 and 55053 . No. 55051 was withdrawn in 1956 and 55053 continued to work the Dornoch to Mound branch until it broke its crank axle in 1957. It was replaced by 2 Western Region Pannier tanks of the 16xx class.
55053 was the last Highland engine to remain in service. Had it not broken its crank axle it would have remained in use until the Mound branch was closed in 1960. It looked a very smart little engine fully lined out in BR black mixed traffic livery.
None of the class ever worked the Invergarry & Augustus branch but
they would have been very suitable for that line.
Highland Railway "Barney" class 0-6-0: (HR_0-6-0)
The class of 12 locos was designed by Peter Drummond for goods work
and they were introduced in 1900.
All were fitted with vacuum brakes and they were also used for passenger work.
By 1919 the allocation was Perth 4, Inverness 4, Tain 2 and Helmsdale 2.
Some were rebuilt with Caledonian boilers after the grouping of 1923
although 4 were later refitted with Highland boilers.
7 of the class survived into BR days and the last was withdrawn in early 1952. Being such a small class there was not really much hope of a long term survival under the BR regime.
They were used in the Glasgow area in 1938 in connection with the Empire exhibition and also spent some time working in the Lanarkshire coalfields.
They were quite a powerful engine and can manage 300 tons on the Fort
Augustus up line although I have not yet tried it on the down line with
its 1 in 68 start out of Aberchalder. (They never did work on that line
in reality but would have been very suitable to do so).
Built originally as 2-8-2 Vauclain compounds in 1903, these locomotives were modified to simple expansion later in their lives. Most acquired superheaters but one loco (No. 462) survived to the end without. No's 463 and 464 have been preserved, 463 is on the Cumbres abd Toltec line while No. 464 is being restored at the Huckleberry Railroad near Detroit. With an official description of class K27, these locos are affectionately known as "Mudhens" due to their waddling gate and low slung flycranks.
Before the Drummond Class 476 was built the NBR used Wheatley's class 420 which were built in 1873 and totalled 4 only. I presume they would also have used the earlier 2 locos built in 1871 namely 224 and 264.
No. 224 was the first example of the inside cylinder 4 coupled bogie engine built in Britain. She had a weatherboard and no real cab, solid disc bogie wheels and a short tender to fit the NB turntables of the time. On Sunday December 28th 1879 she was spare engine at Dundee and, owing to the regular engine breaking down, she worked the mail train to Burntisland and the 5.20 pm return working. Of course she never reached Dundee that night as the Tay Bridge collapsed taking down with it No. 224 and 75 passengers and railway staff. 224 was the only survivor and was recovered after spending 3 months on the river bed. She was repaired at Cowlairs and continued her duties. In 1885 she was rebuilt as an experimental compound loco but reverted to a simple engine in 1887. She continued working until withdrawal in 1919 - 40 years after her plunge into the Tay.
I attach a loco file for 224 and she is a good performer on the Waverley although the small tender means a stop at Hawick in both directions for water. She can do the trip in less than 140 minutes with 120 tons with a max fire rate of 2000lbs, 13000 coal, cutoffs of 32,42,52,62 and 74 and a max speed of 70.
The schedule of 1878 was 140 mins for the non-stop night expresses with the Drummond class 476. Banking was allowed on the down trains from Newcastleton to Whitrope being 8 miles at 1 in 75. However 224 has to manage unassisted but can maintain around 25 mph on this stretch.
This was an experimental locomotive designed by O V S Bulleid in his last days with the Southern Railway.
As is usual for Bulleid it had many innovations which inevitably lead
to its downfall.
It was an 0-6-0,0-6-0T engine and looked very similar to a diesel loco having a drivers cab at both ends and
a fireman's cab in the centre (this proved to be uncomfortably hot for the fireman with temperatures of
100+F being recorded).
The six inside cylinders were arranged in banks of three on two bogies
and had sleeve valve gear driven by
chains enclosed in an oil bath. The sleeve valve gear was necessary to fit three cylinders inside the frames
but was a constant source of trouble.
The boiler was almost conventional but the firebox was dry backed and
as such unstayed. This too gave
problems with some buckling. To make up for the lack of a firebox wrapper there were four thermic syphons.
The limitations of the program do not allow for the unconventional features
so in effect we have an ideal
situation that did not exist in reality, but it doesn't hurt to fantasise now and again.
If you want to find out more about this unusual engine the there is a book devoted to it by Kevin
Roberton called Leader: Steam's Last Chance.
As this loco never entered revenue earning service and I cannot find
a power classification it is difficult to
give loadings but its tractive effort would put it in the 6P classification.
Unfortunately the design proved to be a complete flop. There were problems with steaming, the locomotives were found to be sluggish, they had an enormous appetite for coal and they were plagued by mechanical failures. Hughes decided that the only answer was a complete rebuild. Then came the dark days of the First World War and the rebuilds had to be postponed until the beginning of November 1920, when No. 1522 immerged from Horwich Works: a complete transformation.
The rebuilds had four 16½ in. by 26 in. cylinders, the largest then in use on a four-cylinder simple expansion locomotive in Great Britain, a boiler with a 28 element superheater and Walschaerts valve gear with long travel piston valves. There were immediate reports of the rebuilt locomotive handling the heaviest trains "with conspicuous success".
Eric Mason, in his book ‘Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway in the Twentieth Century’, reported many personally observed good performances including an excellent run by 1522 between Manchester and Southport whilst hauling 12 large vestibuled corridor coaches totalling about 350 tons. Mason recalled that the train was brought to a halt at the foot of a 1 in 94 bank between Pendleton and Pendlebury due to a signal check. Then with careful handling of the regulator the driver, Joe Miller, avoided any trace of slipping as the speed steadily rose, without undue effort, to 28 mph near the top of the bank. The train reached its destination with a top speed of 75 mph within half a minute of booked time. According to Mason, on arriving at Chapel Street the regular travellers greeted the driver with the words "Good lad Joe -- you’ve got an engine to do it with now, all right!" (A different spirit to the contemporary commuter).
A further account of good running was reported by Cecil J Allen in the Railway Magazine of May 1921, when Driver Ralph Shorrock, the first man to work one of this class (number 1523) into York, gave the North Eastern drivers "such a shock" whilst working the 2.40 p.m. express from York to Manchester. Again according to Mason, on a day in March 1921 he completely demoralised the N.E. train crew on the 2.40 p.m. York to Leeds, which ran on a parallel line as far as Church Fenton Junction, by giving them a sound and effortless beating on their own ground. The publication of Allen’s article was said to have caused enormous satisfaction in the highest circles at Horwich.
Although the engine had plenty of power its fuel consumption was another story. An official test run, described by Mason, was made between Manchester and Blackpool with a load of 385.6 tons. The 48.8 miles was covered in 71.9 min. net (or 74.2 min including a stop) but no highs speed were attempted, the maximum being 65 mph; the average was only 40.7 mph. On the return trip with the same load the net time was 70.45 min. for an average speed of 41.6 mph, the maximum being 61.5 mph. The coal consumption on the outward run was 75.4 lb per mile and on the return 55 lb per mile. The driver had strict instructions to keep to the booked times of 75 minutes each way. Mason did not explain the difference in consumption, but on a later run with a different engine and a 19-coach train of some 600 tons, including the dynamometer car, he reported that the coal consumption was worked out to be 3.924 lb per dhp hour. Unfortunately no further details were given.
O.S.Nock in his book ‘British Locomotives of the 20th Century – Volume 1 1900-1930’ described the fuel consumption quoted above for the Manchester - Blackpool run as rather extravagant but when compared with the non-superheated version, which could use anything up to 100 lb of coal per mile, he conceded that the Horwich engineers must have been pleased with their achievement.
The fuel consumption saga continued into the early days of the grouping,
when George Hughes became the CME of the newly formed LMS. He intended
to make the LYR 4-6-0 the standard express engine and set up trials in
May 1925, between Carlisle and Preston, which he must have hoped would
prove their superior performance. The trial matched the LYR 4-6-0 against
an LNWR 4-6-0 "Claughton" class locomotive with a load of 400 tons. In
the event the performance figures were disappointing for him as the "Claughton"
turned in the better fuel consumption, 5.13 lb/dhp hour against 4.75 lb/dhp
The simulator data for both versions of the locomotive are given in the following table. The file name for the rebuilt locomotive is LY_460rb.loc. Despite the fuel consumption problems the power of the locomotive can be appreciated by driving the simulated engine along the old LYR route from Manchester Victoria to Liverpool Exchange, file Man_Liv.rut. You can try your hand at accelerating, from a standing start, up the bank between Pendleton and Pendlebury with a load of 385.6 tons.
|Cylinder Diameter||16 in.||16.5 in|
|Piston Stroke||26 in||26 in|
|Number of Cylinders||4||4|
|Maximum Cut Off||not known, assume 75%||not known, assume 75%|
|Clearance Volume||not known, assume 9%||not known, assume 9%|
|Driving wheel Diameter||6ft 3in||6ft 3in|
|Total Evaporation Surface||2507 sq ft||2004 sq ft|
|Grate Area||27 sq ft||27 sq ft|
|Superheat Area||none||394.9 sq ft|
|Maximum Boiler Pressure||180 psig||180 psig|
|Length Between Tube-plates||15 ft||15 ft|
|Mean Boiler Diameter||5 ft 7 in||5 ft 7 in|
|Injector||assume medium||assume medium|
|Tender Coal Capacity||5 tons||5 tons|
|Tender Water Capacity||2480 gallons||2480 gallons|
|Adhesive Mass||59 tons||59 tons 6 cwt|
|Total Mass, Loco + Tender||107 tons 14 cwt||111 tons 7 cwt|
All but five of the 20 Dreadnoughts were rebuilt with superheaters and Walschaerts valve gear. A further 55 engines were built directly to the rebuilt design which included 20, produced after the grouping, that were originally intended as 4-6-4 tank engines. Five locomotives lasted long enough to be taken into British Railways stock, including one of the rebuilds, but only one was given a BR number: 50455. This last survivor was withdrawn in October 1951.
David Fryer 24/6/01
This was a remarkably successful class and another of Aspinall's designs that was 'right from the word go' (the Atlantic ‘High Flier’ being another example). Like the Atlantic they had non-superheated boilers with a pressure of 180 psi, slide valves and Joy radial valve gear. In their hay day they were to be found virtually over the entire LYR network. All the locomotives were fitted with the standard LYR vacuum-operated water pick-up gear, arranged to operate in both directions. By the end of the 19th century 230 had been build and apart from fitting larger coal bunkers (3.5 tons of coal and 1540 galls of water) the original design was unchanged, and this continued until 1901.
The first development from Aspinall's design came in 1905 when George Hughes built an additional 20 with Belpaire, instead of round top, fireboxes and following this, in 1910, a further 20 to the same design.
In 1911 a further batch of 20 was built but with Schmidt super heaters having a heating surface of 171.2 sq ft. In addition the diameter of the cylinders was increased from 18 to 20.5 inches with the result that locomotives had the highest tractive effort of any four-coupled engine in the country - 24,584 lb. The overall weight was 66.45 tons and an adhesive weight of 39.25 tons.
With this increase in speed-worthiness the running staff began to use these new powerful and free running engines on express work, for which a tank engine with a leading radial axle was really unsuitable. The result was that an accident took place on June 21 1912 resulting in fatalities. The cause was excessive speed (60 mph instead of the stipulated 45 mph) exacerbated by the increase in weight over the original design. As a result all superheated 2-4-2 tank engines were taken off main line expresses.
All these locomotives were absorbed into LMS stock, including one that
had been sold to the Wirral Railway. A large number, 104 of the original
design, 8 of the superheated version and the Wirral locomotive, survived
to become part of BR stock. The last three to be withdrawn were in 1961.
David Fryer 24/6/01
Built between 1912 and 1917, this uncomplicated but very successful design was constructed at Borsig in Berlin and by the Swiss Locomotive Company in Wintherthur. The class contained 20 examples numbered from R934 to R953. Later a three cylinder variant of this two cylinder design was introduced and 10 of those locomotives were built between 1921 and 1924 by Borsig, numbered R954-963. The R class was used on the steeply graded tracks around Jylland (Jutland). The locomotives were capable of hauling 400 tons at 56 mph on level track.
The version provided for the simulator is of the earlier two cylinder type.
(I believe that an example of both the two and three cylinder locomotives has been preserved. The three cylinder locomotive R963 was in use in 1997, while the two cylinder locomotive R946 is in the care of the DSB Museumstog Vest - BA)